Throughout the ancient
There is only one God, creator of the universe.
There is only one language, the language of love.
There is only one religion, religion of the heart.
· Eastern Desert
The national currency is the Egyptian pound (LE), called "ge'neh" in Arabic. Paper denominations are broken down into 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 notes. Coins exists as 25 and 50 piastres.
The History of Egypt
Speaking about one of the oldest and richest civilizations around the world, Egypt has a long diverse history that extends for more than 5000 years of recorded incidents. Life has emerged in the land of the Nile millions of years ago. This is what historians asserted through various evidences found all over the country. However, the Egyptian civilization began in the 32nd century BC when the hieroglyphic language was invented.
The first important event in the Egyptian history was when King Menes, or Narmar as some scholars believe, unified Northern and Southern Egypt in one kingdom in the 30th century BC. He also established the 1st capital of Egypt; Memphis, located to Southwest of modern day Cairo. The great pyramids of Giza were afterwards built during the 26th century BC.
Another significant event in the Egyptian history is the Hyksos occupation of the country that lasted for more than 150 years. This was when Ahmose defeated the Hyksos and established the 18th dynasty to begin a whole new chapter of history.
The kings and Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty also played a significant role. This was when Ramses II emerged as one of the most famous Pharaohs of all time. Most of the monuments we view today in Egypt date back to this period. Ramses also signed the first peace treaty in the history of mankind when he prevented the Hittites to take advantage of Egypt.
The Persians occupied many regions around Egypt in many attacks that remained for more than 700 years during the ruling period of the last 10 dynasties of the ancient Egyptian history that witnessed the decline of the Pharaohs and the beginning of the Greco Roman era.
Alexander the Great took control of Egypt in 4th century BC to become part of the expanding Greek Empire at the time. After the death of Alexander, Ptolemy I established his own independent state in Egypt that remained for around five centuries. When Cesar of Rome defeated the fleet of Cleopatra, the last Greek Queen of Egypt, the Roman period in Egypt began and lasted for more than 300 years. The Roman Empire was fragmented afterwards into two kingdoms, the Roman and the Byzantine which ruled over Egypt for another 500 years.
A new beginning in the Egyptian history started when Moslems, coming from the Arabian Peninsula, entered Egypt in the 7th century AD. Egypt afterwards was ruled by many various Moslem Empires including the Abbasids, the Tulunids, the Fatimids, the Ayoubids, the Mamluks, and the Ottomans.
Mohamed Ali wrote a new chapter in the Egyptian history when he declared Egypt as an independent state away from the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Considered as the founder of modern Egypt, Mohamed Ali is credited to have established many modern facilities and buildings all over Egypt. After his death, many kings from his royal family ruled over Egypt, even during the British occupation of the country.
With the rise of the Egyptian revolution in 1952, the Egyptian army expelled King Farouk and Mohamed Nageeb, one of the Free Soldiers who initiated the revolution, became the first president of the Arab Republic of Egypt. A few years later, Gamal Abdel Nasser, the true leader of the revolution became the president. After his death, Anwar El Sadat became the president and after his assassination in 1981, Hosni Mubarak was the president of Egypt from 1981 till 2011 before the burst of the 25th of January 2011 that forced Mubarak to step down.
· Pharaonic Era 3100 - 332 BC
· Greek Era 332 BC - 32 AD
· Roman Era 32 - 638
· Coptic Era 65 - present
· Islamic Arab Era 641 - 1517
· Ottoman Turkish Era 1517 - 1882
· French Invasion 1798
· British Rule 1882 - 1952
· Egypt Independence 1952 - present
Egyptians constitute 95% of the total population. Minorities include other Arabs, Nubians, Berbers, Siwa Oasis Bedouins, Turks, as well as small tribal communities of the Bejas and Doms.
Egyptian culture is diverse due to the simple reason that Egyptians form a multicultural society where modernity and Western customs flirt with traditional values, where religious practices are moderate but where religion is still deeply anchored in the every day life of Egyptians.
mild winter and a sunny summer.
The majority of
Late September and October,
as well as April and May are thus ideal
weather that is perfect for
cruising down the